Geneva Agreement 1954

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After intense negotiations that began on 8 May 1954, the day after the fall of the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu, agreements were finally signed on 21 July between the French and Vietnamese, Laotian and Cambodian representatives. The main provisions were in favour of a ceasefire line along the 17th parallel (effectively split in two); 300 days for each side, to withdraw their troops at its side of the line; Communist troops and guerrillas for the evacuation of Laos and Cambodia, where free elections would be held in 1955 and where French troops could be deployed if requested by the Lao or Cambodian government. It was expressly stated that the demarcation line “should not be construed as a political or territorial boundary under any circumstances.” Implementation of the agreements should be overseen by a commission made up of representatives from India, Poland and Canada. A provision known as the final declaration stipulated that all Vietnamese elections should be held before July 1956, under the supervision of the Committee, in order to again deny the country. This was an issue of great importance in persuading Viet Minh to accept the temporary regrouping of its troops in the northern half of the country, since it controlled three-quarters of Vietnam on the eve of the conference. Behind the scenes, the U.S. and French governments continued to discuss the conditions for a possible U.S. military intervention in Indochina. [5]:563-6 Until May 29, the United States and the French had agreed that if the conference were not to conclude an acceptable peace agreement, Eisenhower would win congressional approval for military intervention in Indochina. [5]:568-9 After discussions with the Australian and New Zealand authorities, where it became clear that neither country would support a U.S. military intervention, the United States reported on the decline in morality of the French Union armed forces and the opposition of Army Chief Matthew Ridgway, the United States began to be moved by the intervention and continued to oppose a negotiated solution. [5]569-73 At the beginning until mid-June, the United States began to consider leaving the French rather than supporting the French in Indochina rather than supporting the French, and that the United States supported the new indigenous states. This would remove the filth of French colonialism.

As the United States was not prepared to support the proposed division or intervention, the United States decided in mid-June to withdraw from the major participation in the conference. [5]:574-5 Most of the nine participating countries expressed a compelling obligation to guarantee the agreements, but the United States made it clear that they were not bound by them. The South Vietnamese were also supportive and the final declaration was not signed by all parties. The U.S. government pledged to establish a separate anti-communist state in southern Vietnam and in 1956 supported South Vietnam`s refusal to hold national elections in agreement with northern Vietnam. Geneva Convention, collection of documents on Indochina and exhibition of the Geneva conference from 26 April to 21 July 1954, included representatives from Cambodia, the People`s Republic of China, Laos, the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, Vietnam (i.e., North Vietnam) and the State of Vietnam (i.e. southern China).

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